Phase II Roadmap for Cycle 25
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HST Cycle 25 Phase II Proposal Instructions > Chapter 13: Wide Field Camera 3(WFC3) > 13.3 Mode = MULTIACCUMConfig = WFC3/IR

13.3
MULTIACCUM is the only observing mode for the IR channel. An exposure in MULTIACCUM mode begins with an array reset followed by an initial readout. Next, one or more nondestructive readouts are obtained at user-selectable times. All of the readouts, including the initial readout, are recorded onboard and returned to the ground for analysis. The difference between each successive pair of reads is the image data accumulated between reads.
There are two major advantages of this approach. First, the multiple readouts provide a way to record what is happening in a pixel before it saturates, increasing dynamic range. Second, the multiple readouts can be compared to remove cosmic ray effects. See the WFC3 Instrument Handbook for more information.
13.3.1 Aperture or FOV
Placement of the target on the detector is controlled by the specified Aperture, the POSition TARGet <X-value>,<Y-value> special requirement (if used), the telescope orientation (via the "ORIENTation <angle1> TO <angle2>" special requirement or by default), and in some instances according to the Spectral Element. The apertures for the IR channel and their valid combinations with spectral elements are defined in Table 13.3. The current values of the aperture coordinates of the Aperture+Spectral Element combinations in Table 13.3 may be found on the HST Apertures Web Page.
The IR aperture is designed for placing targets at the “optimum center” of the detector. The default location within this aperture will be routinely adjusted by STScI to reflect any changes in detector performance. This aperture is appropriate for targets that are small compared to the scale size of defects in the chips.
The IR-FIX aperture defines the geometric center of the detector and will remain FIXED in aperture coordinates. This location will not be adjusted for changes in detector characteristics, and should be used to specify the location of the target relative to the detector. This geometric center aperture is appropriate for pointings designed to position an extended scene within the WFC3 FOV.
Three apertures are provided that use the same pointing of the telescope as used for three associated UVIS apertures. Using an associated pair of apertures for UVIS and IR exposures will avoid a small angle maneuver between the exposures. The IR apertures are IR-UVIS, IR-UVIS-CENTER, and IR-UVIS-FIX, which are associated with, respectively, the apertures UVIS, UVIS-CENTER, and UVIS-FIX.
IR subarrays are specified by selecting the appropriate aperture. The IRSUBnn or IRSUBnn-FIX apertures will result in the use of the subarray readout mode of the IR detector with the size of the subarray being that indicated by the aperture name (nn = 512, 256, 128, or 64). The use of the subarray readout mode will result in different sample times than for full detector readouts listed in Table 13.4. Not all combinations of subarray size and sample sequence are supported. See the discussion under the SAMP-SEQ optional parameter (Section 13.3.4) for more details. The subarray readouts will have a border of five reference pixels added around the edge of the subarray used for imaging, making the total data sizes 1024x1024 (full-frame), 74x74, 138x138, 266x266, and 522x522 pixels.
The IRSUBnn apertures will place the target at the "optimum center" of the corresponding subarray; note that these positions may be different for the different subarrays. The default position of each of these apertures will be updated by STScI to reflect changes in instrument performance. These apertures are appropriate for targets that are small compared to the scale size of defects on the detector.
The IRSUBnn-FIX apertures define the geometric center of the subarray and will remain fixed in aperture coordinates. These locations will not be adjusted for changes in detector performance.
Five apertures are specialized for use with the two IR grisms (G102 and G141) and to obtain band pass filter images for use as wavelength zero-point references. According to the FOV, the apertures are named GRISMmm, where mm = 1024 (full frame), 512, 256, 128, 64. The subarrays are the same as the IRSUBnn apertures. The fiducial pixel for each Aperture+Spectral Element combination is optimized to best position the first-order spectrum in the FOV. For GRISM1024, GRISM512, and GRISM256, the same fiducial pixel is used for G102 and G141 and for reference band pass filter exposures. For GRISM128 and GRISM64 different fiducial pixels are used for G102 and G141 that best center each first-order spectrum in the FOV. The fiducial pixel for a bandpass filter exposure with those two apertures is midway between the two grism fiducial pixels.
Fnnn1
Full frame G102 or G141 spectra
1
Fnnn’ denotes any of the band pass filters, but not either of the grisms

13.3.2 Spectral Elements
See Table 13.6, Spectral Elements for use with WFC3/IR.
13.3.3 Wavelength
This parameter should be left blank.
13.3.4 Optional Parameters
SAMPSEQ
=RAPID, SPARS5, SPARS10, SPARS25, SPARS50, SPARS100, SPARS200, STEP25, STEP50, STEP100, STEP200, STEP400
A required parameter specifying the name of a predefined sequence of times from the start of the exposure at which the nondestructive readouts (samples) are performed.  The structure and purpose of each class of sequence (RAPID, STEP, SPARS, MIF) is described in the paragraphs below. (Note that SPARS5 was introduced in Cycle 23.) The number of readouts (up to 15, plus one for the initial readout) taken for each exposure is controlled by the NSAMP parameter (see below).
Table 13.4 gives the sample times (defined as the time from the start of the initial readout to the start of a given readout) for each sequence and image size. Different types of sequences are provided. The RAPID sequence provides linear sampling as fast as possible (limited by the readout time for the selected image size) and is intended for bright targets that could saturate in the other sample sequences. All sample sequences with the full detector apertures are supported. But note that only a limited number of combinations of subarray size and sample sequence are supported.
Sequences STEP25, STEP50, STEP100, STEP200, and STEP400 begin with four rapid samples (five readouts), switch to logarithmic spacing up to the given number of seconds (25-400), and then continue with linear spacing for the remainder of the sequence with adjacent steps separated by 25-400 seconds depending on the selected sequence. These sequences are intended to compensate for any nonlinearities near the start of the exposure and to provide increased dynamic range for images that contain both faint and bright targets.
Sequences SPARS5, SPARS10, SPARS25, SPARS50, SPARS100, and SPARS200 begin with one rapid sample (two readouts) then provide linear spacing to allow observers to "read up the ramp" at evenly spaced intervals. The variety of sampling intervals allows this basic strategy to be applied over a wide range in target flux. SPARS5 was introduced in Cycle 23. See:
http://www.stsci.edu/hst/wfc3/documents/newsletters/STAN_03_02_2015.
 
The different sequences are designed to efficiently fill the orbital visibility period with one, two, or several exposures. See the WFC3 Instrument Handbook for recommendations on which sequences to use in different situations.
NSAMP
=1-15
A required parameter specifying the number of samples in a predefined sequence that should actually be taken, not counting the initial readout. Table 13.4 defines 15 sample times for each sequence. If an NSAMP value smaller than 15 is used, samples will be taken at only the first NSAMP times from this table.If an NSAMP value smaller than 5 is used, the flux determined by "up the ramp" fitting will be less reliable.
The total number of readouts will be NSAMP plus one (for the initial readout), giving a maximum of 16 readouts for a single execution of a MULTIACCUM exposure. Each readout will be recorded and will appear in the final data set.
13.3.5 Number of Iterations
Enter the number of times this exposure should be iterated, and the duration in seconds of each iteration. This option should be used in observational situations when two or more identical exposures should be taken of the same field. If the Number_Of_Iterations is n, the exposure will be iterated n times.
If the exposure is a Spatial Scan (see Section 7.3.3) and Number of Iterations > 1, a small slew will be inserted between the exposures so the scans will repeat the same path on the detector each time. This will sacrifice orbital visibility time. Consider alternating the Scan_Direction instead.
13.3.6 Time Per Exposure
Time_Per_Exposure must be DEF in this Mode. The exposure time is unnecessary, because it is specified by SAMPSEQ and NSAMP.
Table 13.4 shows the sequence of 15 sample times corresponding to the different SAMP-SEQ values, in seconds from the start of the initial readout to the start of the readout for the given sample. These values are given to the nearest millisecond
Table 13.4: Predefined Sample Sequences for MULTIACCUM Mode.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13.3.7 Special Requirements
"SPATIAL SCAN <Scan_Rate>, <Scan_Orient>, <Scan_Direction>, <Scan_Line_Separation>, <Scan_Number_Lines>"
See 7.3.3 Special Observation Requirements for information on executing an exposure as a Spatial Scan.
Special requirement "SAME POSition AS <exposure>" is not permitted on and may not refer to a Spatial Scan exposure. Spatial Scan exposures are not permitted in Coordinated Parallel containers or in Pure Parallel visits.
Special requirements SAME ALIGNMENT and PARallel WITH are not permitted on and may not refer to a Spatial Scan exposure. Pure Parallel visits may not contain Spatial Scan exposures.

HST Cycle 25 Phase II Proposal Instructions > Chapter 13: Wide Field Camera 3(WFC3) > 13.3 Mode = MULTIACCUMConfig = WFC3/IR

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