The File System

Printing Files


If you are like most
users, you will often need printed copies of your files. Line printers are available for large code listings or other voluminous printouts. There are also a number of laser printers that will produce high-quality output. Most are PostScript compatible, making them useful for graphics work. A complete list of currently available VMS printers is shown in Table 3.7. Most printers are accessible from either cluster.

The queue names that you will use when submitting a print job depend on the type of file being printed. The queue name is formed by appending the type of output to the printer name. For example, to print PostScript on printer 4C_LPS, you would use the queue name 4CLPS_POST. The types of queues are POST (PostScript), ANSI (text), REGIS (Regis graphics), and TEK (Tektronix graphics).

For information about displaying jobs in the queues, see "Examining Print Queues" on page 64.



Table 3.7: VMS Printer Queues (subject to change)


Report problems with VMS printers to the operators.
Send e-mail to OPER or call extension 4905. Describe the problem completely.


Print jobs can also be sent to printers attached to the various Unix machines (Unix print queues are not available from the STOSC cluster). These print queues are
shown in Table 3.8.



Table 3.8: Print Queues for Unix Printers (subject to change)


Report Unix printer problems to the Unix operators. Send e-mail to in%"operator@stsci.edu", or call extension 4583. Describe the problem fully.


Starting a Print Job

The simplest way to print a file (using your default printer) is to use the PRINT command:

$ PRINT FILE.EXT
You can print several files using a single command. Each file name is separated by a comma on the command line, for example:

$ PRINT FILE1.EXT,FILE2.TXT;3,BLSS.C
If you omit the version number when specifying the file to be printed, the system uses the highest version number.

The previous commands use the default printer, but you will often want to use another printer, perhaps one nearer your office, or one with better quality output. To do this, use the /QUEUE option, listing the name of the print queue to which the file should be directed. (Queues are listed in Table 3.7.) The following command shows how to direct a print job to a specific queue (in this case to the high-speed DEC LPS20 PrintServer, located in the third floor Xerox room):

$ PRINT/QUE=3CLPS_ANSI FILE1.EXT

Remember to select the queue that matches the kind of file you want to print, for example, _POST for PostScript files.


Another commonly used PRINT option is /COPIES to print several copies of a file. The /COPIES qualifier may be placed in one of two places in the PRINT command:

The first of the following two commands show how to print two copies of multiple files, while the second prints multiple files, but two copies of only the file SPEC.TXT:

$ PRINT/COPIES=2 *.TXT;* 
$ PRINT LETTR.TXT,SPEC.TXT/COPIES=2,FLAT.DAT;1
When you send a print job to a printer, you are responsible for removing printed output from the printers. If several other jobs are sitting in the output tray, put the printouts in the appropriate bins.

There are several other options that can be used with the PRINT command, including the ability to delete files after printing, and to use special printer capabilities. A list of parameters for Printserver 20 printers, including the ability to order pages and produce two-sided output, is available from the system managers. Table 3.9 lists some of the more commonly used PRINT qualifiers.



Table 3.9: Qualifiers for the PRINT Command


A card describing features of the LPS printers and their PRINT qualifiers can be printed using the command:
$ PRINT/QUE=3C_POST/PARAMS=(PAGE_ORIENT=LAND) -
_$ SYS$COMMON:[SYSHLP.EXAMPLES.CPS]LPS_PRINTING_REF_CARD.PS


Setting the Default Queue

Instead of always specifying the queue name
when using the PRINT command, you can set a default queue name. This is done with the command DEFINE SYS$PRINT. For example, if you wanted to specify 1SLPS_ANSI as your default queue, you would type:

$ DEFINE SYS$PRINT 1SLPS_ANSI
Whenever you print a file without specifying a queue
name, the default queue will be used. You may want to set the default queue from within your LOGIN.COM file so it is always set.

Examining Print Queues

You can examine the contents of print queues to see how many print jobs are lined up waiting for the printer, where your job stands in the queue, and print job entry numbers--which you will need if you want to cancel a job.

To see the contents of a print queue, use the command SHOW QUEUE, for example, to see the contents of queue 3C_LPS20, you would type the following command:

$ SHOW QUEUE/ALL/FULL 3C_LPS20
Figure 3.6 shows an example of the type of output you can expect from the SHOW QUEUE command.



Figure 3.6: Displaying a Print Queue

To see all available print queues on the cluster, use the command:

$ SHOW QUEUE/DEVICE
There are several queue types, and you may need to use a different command to examine some queues, such as the server queues. The types of queues are shown in Table
3.10.



Table 3.10: Printer Queue Types

There are three commands associated with the server queues, these are:

Descriptions of these queue server commands are available in the online help.

Canceling a Print Job

After issuing a PRINT command, you can still stop the printing process. Print jobs can be cancelled either while the job is waiting in the queue, or while it is actually being printed.

To delete a print job, you must know the job entry number of the file to be printed. The job entry number is displayed by the system following each PRINT command and users should note the job number as it is displayed. For example:

$ PRINT/QUEUE=LCA0 RESEARCH.DAT 
Job 8198 entered on queue LCA0
The job entry number of this particular print job is 8198 and it is being executed on queue LCA0. To cancel printing of the file RESEARCH.DAT while it is in the queue--but not yet actually printing--you would use the following command:

$ DELETE/ENTRY=8198
If you are not sure what the entry number is, you can use the SHOW QUEUE or QSHOW commands to list the jobs in the queue.

Print Formats

A utility called PSPRINT provides control over the look of printed text files. It takes your text input and allows you to control position of the text on the page, borders, pagination, fonts, and orientation--you can also specify that you want a file printed on STScI letterhead.

PSPRINT can be used in either of two ways: through a menu interface, or by typing DCL commands on the command line.

Menu Interface

The menu interface (Figure 3.7) is the easiest way to use PSPRINT--at least until you get used to the options. To use PSPRINT with the menu interface, simply type:

$ PSPRINT/MENU


Figure 3.7: Printing from the PSPRINT Menu

When you use the menu interface, you first type the name of the file you want to print. You then press to move to the next field. When you do so, the system looks for the file. If the file cannot be found in the current directory, or the directory you specified, then you must re-enter the file name before you can proceed.

Each field has default values. For example, look at Figure 3.7; notice that the margin fields in the second row of fields are each set to 0.5. This will give you half-inch margins all the way around the paper. This may not give you the look you want when used with 10 point type (specified in the "Font Size" field), so you may want to either widen the margins, or use a larger font size. The default values are restored the next time you run PSPRINT--values from the previous run are not retained.

To change the values of any field, simply type a new value when you are in the field. Pressing accepts whatever value is in the field and moves you to the next field. You can also move around the form using the arrow keys. Press to accept all values displayed in the form and move to the next form.

If you want to print your file on STScI letterhead, set the "STSci Logo" field to "Yes".

After you have accepted values for all fields, a list of available printers will be displayed. Move through the list using the up and down arrow keys until the printer you want to use is highlighted, then press .

A list of available fonts is then displayed. Use the arrow keys to move up and down through the list until the type face that you want to use is highlighted. Press . The job is then sent to the specified printer.

Command Line Interface

When you use PSPRINT from the command line, you specify print options as command qualifiers, as with most DCL commands. If you are printing several jobs, you may want to set the logical LPS$DEFAULT_QUEUE to establish a default printer, or you can override the logical for each print job using the /QUEUE qualifier. The font to be used can be specified with the /FONT qualifier.

A complete list of qualifiers is available in the online help; type HELP PSPRINT. The following example shows how print jobs can be started:

$ PSPRINT/QUEUE=3CLPS_POST/FONT=NB MEMO5.TXT
%LPS-I-JOBSTART, Job MEMO5 (queue 3CLPS_POST) started on 3C_LPS

Table 3.7: - VMS Printer Queues (subject to change)
Table 3.8: - Print Queues for Unix Printers (subject to change)
Starting a Print Job
Table 3.9: - Qualifiers for the PRINT Command
Setting the Default Queue
Examining Print Queues
Figure 3.6: - Displaying a Print Queue
Table 3.10: - Printer Queue Types
Canceling a Print Job
Print Formats
Menu Interface
Figure 3.7: - Printing from the PSPRINT Menu
Command Line Interface

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