The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS
) is an ultraviolet spectrograph designed to optimize observations of point sources. It was installed during Servicing Mission 4 in the instrument bay previously occupied by COSTAR. COS is designed to be a very high throughput instrument, providing medium to low resolution ultraviolet spectroscopy. The instrument has two channels for ultraviolet spectroscopy: Far-ultraviolet (FUV) and Near-ultraviolet (NUV).
COS/FUV uses a single optical element to disperse and focus light onto a crossed-delay-line (XDL) detector; the result is high ultraviolet sensitivity from about 900 Å to 2050 Å with resolving power for different modes ranging from R ~ 1300 to ~ 17,000 (for detailed information on the resolving power of the FUV channel, please see the COS Instrument Handbook
). This detector has heritage from the FUSE spacecraft. The active front surface of the detector is curved; to achieve the length required to capture the entire projected COS spectrum, two detector segments are placed end-to-end with a small gap between them. Each detector segment has an active area of 85 x 10 mm, digitized to 16384 x 1024 pixels, and a resolution element of 6 x 10 pixels.
The FUV channel has three gratings: G140L provides nearly complete coverage of the FUV wavelength range in a single exposure with a resolving power R ~ 1300 to 3500. G130M spans wavelengths between 900 Å and 1450 Å, and G160M covers the wavelength range between 1400 Å to 1775 Å; both these gratings provide resolving power R between 13,000 and 17,000 for wavelengths longer than 1150 Å (see the next paragraph for resolving power at shorter wavelengths)
. For all three FUV gratings, a small segment of the spectrum is lost to the gap between the two detector segments. This gap can be filled by obtaining two exposures offsets in wavelength.
The resolution values quoted here are based on ray-trace models, so actual resolution may be slightly different. However, preliminary comparison with on-orbit test data appears consistent with the predictions of these models. At the 1055 Å setting, these ray-trace models predict that a resolution between 7000 and 8500 can be obtained on segment B of the COS FUV detector between 900 Å and 970 Å, while for the 1096 Å setting, resolutions between 7000 and 10,000 can be obtained between 940 Å and 1080
Å. These settings will complement the G130M 1222 Å central wavelength setting that was first offered in Cycle 20, which provides resolution of 10,000 to 13,000 between 1067 Å and 1172 Å. At longer wavelengths, the resolution offered by any of these settings will be inferior to that available with the original complement of G130M central wavelength settings (1291 Å, 1300 Å, 1309 Å, 1318 Å, and 1327 Å). Some targets that are too bright to observe at longer wavelengths with the COS G130M grating may be observable on the B segment with the 1055 Å and 1096 Å settings by turning off the A segment which covers the longer wavelengths. However, in this case, there is no usable wavelength calibration lamp spectrum recorded, and the spectrum observed on the B segment cannot be automatically corrected for mechanism drift or zeropoint offsets. For such configurations, GO wavecals have to be inserted following specific rules described in the COS Instrument Handbook
COS/NUV uses a 1024 x 1024 pixel Cs2
Te MAMA detector that is essentially identical to the STIS/NUV MAMA except that it has a substantially lower dark count. Four gratings may be used for spectroscopy. Portions of the first-order spectra from the gratings are directed onto the detector by three separate flat mirrors. Each mirror produces a single stripe of spectrum on the detector. For the low-dispersion grating, G230L, one or two first-order spectrum stripes are available, each covering ~400 Å of the entire 1700 Å to 3200 Å range at resolving power R ~2100 to 3900, depending upon wavelength. For high-dispersion gratings G185M, G225M, and G285M, three non-contiguous stripes of 35 Å are available in each exposure at resolving powers of 16,000 to 24,000. Panchromatic (1650 Å to 3200 Å) images of small fields (less than two arcseconds) may also be obtained at ~0.06 arcsec or greater resolution in imaging mode.
Fixed-pattern noise in the COS detectors limits the signal-to-noise that can be achieved in a single exposure (see Section 5.8 of the COS Instrument Handbook
). A simple way to remove these detector features is to obtain exposures at multiple FP-POS
settings, both of which shift the spectrum on the detector, and combine them in wavelength space. This is especially important for the COS FUV detector as the fixed pattern noise is larger and more poorly characterized than that of the NUV detector. In addition, the consistent use of multiple FP-POS
positions in the G130M and G140L 1105 Å settings will spread the bright geocoronal Lyman Alpha illumination and significantly delay the appearance of gain sag effects.
Since this simple shift-and-add technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the resulting spectrum, and will extend the lifetime of the COS FUV detector, the use of multiple FP-POS
for each CENWAVE
setting is required unless a strong scientific justification to do otherwise is provided in Phase I. This can be achieved by using the FP-POS=ALL
parameter in APT for each CENWAVE
or by spreading out the four FP-POS
positions over multiple orbits within a visit for each CENWAVE
or over multiple visits to the same target. Proposers who do not intend to use all four FP-POS
for each CENWAVE
setting must justify their observing strategy in the Phase I proposals. A modest reduction in observational overheads will not normally be considered sufficient justification for not using all four FP-POS
COS exposures may be obtained in either a time-tagged photon address (TIME-TAG
) mode, in which the position, arrival time, and pulse height (for FUV observations) of each detected photon are saved in an event stream, or in accumulation (ACCUM
) mode, in which only the positions of the photon events are recorded. In TIME-TAG
mode, which is the default observing mode, the time resolution is 32 milliseconds. ACCUM
mode is designed for bright targets with high count rates that would otherwise overwhelm the detector electronics. Because the lower information content of ACCUM
data reduces their utility for archival researchers, its use must be justified for each target. For details, see Section 5.2 of the COS Instrument Handbook
In both TIME-TAG
mode, the Astronomer’s Proposal Tool (APT)
automatically schedules wavelength calibration exposures, either during science exposures or between them (see Section 5.7 of the COS Instrument Handbook
). The COS data reduction pipeline (CALCOS) uses these data to adjust the zeropoint of the wavelength solution for the extracted spectra. It is possible to suppress the taking of wavelength calibration spectra, but since it significantly lessens the archival quality of COS data, it must be justified.