This week on HST


HST Programs: February 5 - February 11 2018

Program Number Principal Investigator Program Title
14624 Hector G. Arce, Yale University Taming the Flame: A Near-IR imaging study of the NGC 2024 (Flame Nebula) cluster
14634 Denis C Grodent, Universite de Liege HST-Juno synergistic approach of Jupiter's magnetosphere and ultraviolet auroras
14661 Michael H. Wong, University of California - Berkeley Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ): Jupiter's 2D Wind Field and Cloud Structure
14662 Luigi R. Bedin, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova The end of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequences of Omega Centauri
14679 Daniel P. Stark, University of Arizona Extremely Metal Poor Galaxies with HST/COS: Completing the Groundwork for JWST
14697 Bradley M Peterson, The Ohio State University A Cepheid Distance to NGC 4051
14771 Nial Rahil Tanvir, University of Leicester r-process kilonovae, short-duration GRBs, and EM counterparts to gravitational wave sources
14772 Bart P. Wakker, University of Wisconsin - Madison Observing gas in Cosmic Web filaments to constrain simulations of cosmic structure formation
14840 Andrea Bellini, Space Telescope Science Institute Schedule Gap Pilot
14849 Eric S. Perlman, Florida Institute of Technology The 3C111 Jet: X-ray Variability, Spectrum & Broadband SED
14936 Imke de Pater, University of California - Berkeley Context Maps of Jupiter in Support of the JUNO Mission
15066 Alexandre David-Uraz, University of Delaware Mapping the structure and kinematics of NGC 1624-2's giant magnetosphere
15076 Roberta M. Humphreys, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities The Recent Mass Loss History of the Red Hypergiant VY CMa
15077 Tucker Jones, University of California - Davis Accurate Emission Line Diagnostics at High Redshift
15084 J. Michael Shull, University of Colorado at Boulder Hot Photons: Measuring the Ionizing Continuum and EUV Emission Lines of Quasars
15087 Sabrina Stierwalt, The University of Virginia Star Cluster Populations of Interacting Dwarf Galaxies
15097 Dolon Bhattacharyya, Boston University Imaging the Extended Hot Hydrogen Exosphere at Mars to Determine the Water Escape Rate
15115 John David Silverman, University of Tokyo Emergence of the supermassive black hole - galaxy mass relations at z > 1
15133 Peter Erwin, Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik Solving the Mystery of Galaxy Bulges and Bulge Substructure
15145 Adam Riess, The Johns Hopkins University The Hubble Constant to 1%: Physics beyond LambdaCDM
15166 Alex V. Filippenko, University of California - Berkeley Continuing a Snapshot Survey of the Sites of Recent, Nearby Supernovae: Cycles 25 & 26
15170 Michael D. Gregg, University of California - Davis Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies
15174 R. O. Parke Loyd, Arizona State University Investigating an SPI and Measuring Baseline FUV Variability in the GJ 436 Hot-Neptune System
15186 David Thilker, The Johns Hopkins University Enabling HST UV Exploration of the Low Surface Brightness Universe: A Pilot Study with the WFC3 X Filter Set
15199 Tuan Do, University of California - Los Angeles Building an astrometric reference frame for tests of General Relativity with stellar orbits at the Galactic center with HST and GAIA
15200 Duncan Farrah, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University A case study of an extremely luminous, highly spatially extended starburst only 1.7Gyr after the Big Bang
15201 Clemence Fontanive, Royal Observatory Edinburgh Looking for the Coldest Atmospheres: a Search for Planetary Mass Companions around T and Y Brown Dwarfs
15212 Michele Trenti, University of Melbourne The brightest galaxies in the first 700 Myr: Building Hubble's legacy of large area IR imaging for JWST and beyond
15215 Vardha N. Bennert, Cal Poly Corporation, Sponsored Programs Department A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass - Host Galaxy Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies
15232 Francesco R. Ferraro, Universita di Bologna Pushing ahead the frontier of the Globular Cluster dynamics: the 3D view of the velocity space
15241 Kirsten L. Larson, California Institute of Technology Clumpy Star Formation in Local LIRGS
15242 Lucia Marchetti, Open University SNAPshot observations of the largest sample of lensed candidates in the Equatorial and Southern Sky identified with Herschel
15265 John Blakeslee, NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics MASSIVE+: The Growth Histories of MASSIVE Survey Galaxies from their Globular Cluster Colors
15266 Zheng Cai, University of California - Santa Cruz Imaging the Most Massive Galaxy Overdensities at z=2.2: The Morphology-Density Relation at High Redshift
15287 Alice E. Shapley, University of California - Los Angeles The Path Forward for Lyman-Continuum Studies at z~3
15303 Chris D'Andrea, University of Pennsylvania Revealing the Environmental Dependence in Superluminous Supernovae Diversity
15364 Andrea Bellini, Space Telescope Science Institute Extended F814W Schedule Gap Pilot
15424 William B. Sparks, Space Telescope Science Institute An intensive ultraviolet imaging campaign for Europa's plumes

Selected highlights

GO 14661: Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ): Jupiter's 2D Wind Field and Cloud Structure


Global map of Jupiter from OPAL's 2015 observations
The gas giants and ice giants in the outer system have extended, dynamic gaseous atmospheres that show a range of phenomena reflecting the underlying composition and cloud structure. These are generally driven by solar insolation, with the consequence that the frequency, scale and range of features diminishes from Jupiter through saturn and Uranus to Neptune. Monitoring the changes in the wide variety of features in these atmospheres can provide insight into the velocity structure and the energy sources.Hubble has been monitoring Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune over the last 2 years as part of the Outer Planets Atmospheric Legacy (OPAL) prorgam. Jupiter is receiving poarticular attention this year following the arrival of the Juno probe in 2016. NASA launched the JUpiter Near-polar Orbiter in 2011, and it will provide the first in situ measurements of Jupiter's magnetic field and polar magnetosphere since the Galileo satellite which actively monitored Jupiter from 1995 to 2003. Juno arrived at Jupiter on July 4th 2016 and entered a 53-day orbit. The present program is designed to support in situ measurements made with the IR imager/spectrometer and the Microwave Radiometer. The program targets Jupiter with a wide range of broad and narrow-band filters on Wide Field Camera 3.

GO 14772: Observing gas in Cosmic Web filaments to constrain simulations of cosmic structure formation


Cosmological simulations of structure in the WHIM
Only a small fraction of the baryons in the Universe, perhaps 10%, are thought to reside in visible matter in galaxies. About 30% of the total likely contributes to the ionised gas detected in Lyman-alpha absorption studies. The remainder is generally believed to reside in the WHIM - the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. This material is generally expected to form highly filamentary structures, some of which collapse and condense to for galaxies in the early Universe. Such structures can only be detected through the effect that they have on the light emitted by background sources. As the light passes through the filament, absorption occurs at specific wavelengths that depend on the composition and ionisation of the component materials. The present program focuses on 10-Mpc long filamentary structure that has been identified by mapping the distribution of galaxies in the (relatively) local universe (the measured velocities correspond to a redshift, z~0.01). The present program is using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to obtain observations of QSOs and/or AGN, providing a detailed map of the density and ionisation structure.

GO 15212: The brightest galaxies in the first 700 Myr: Building Hubble's legacy of large area IR imaging for JWST and beyond


The ACS optical/far-red image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field
Galaxy evolution in the early Universe is a discipline of astronomy that has been transformed by observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. The original Hubble Deep Field, the product of 10 days observation in December 1995 of a single pointing of Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, demonstrated conclusively that galaxy formation was a far from passive process. The images revealed numerous blue disturbed and irregular systems, characteristic of star formation in galaxy collisions and mergers. Building on this initial progam, the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) provided matching data for a second southern field, allowing a first assessment of likely effects due to cosmic variance, and the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF) probed to even fainter magitude with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The highest redshift objects found in the UDF have redshifts approaching z~7. Pushing to larger distances, and greater ages, demands observatons at near-infrared wavelengths, as the characteristics signatures of star formation are driven further redward in the spectrum. Wide Field Camera 3, installed in Servicing Mission 4, is well suited to these observations, and a number of programs are in place in Cycle 17 that address these issues. Indeed, WFC3 is employed in pure parallel mode by several programs. These take advantage of other science programs, usually with COS, that involve 2-5 orbit pointings on sources at high galactic latitude. The WFC3 pointing is unplanned, since it depends on the orientation adopted for the prime observations, but 2-5 orbits of IR imaging can reach galaxies at redshifts exceeding z=7 (potentially even z~8) in high latitude fields. The present program builds on similar programs in Cycles 17, 19 and 22, and aims to detect the brightest galaxies at z~9, within 700 Myrs of the Big Bang.

GO 15424: An intensive ultraviolet imaging campaign for Europa's plume


The HST imaging of a potential water plume around Europa's south pole superimposed on an image of the satellite
Europa is the smallest, and the most intriguing, of the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter. With a diameter of 3139 km, Europa is almost twice the size of Earth's moon and significantly larger than Mercury. In 1957, Gerard Kuiper commented that both infrared spectroscopy and the optical colours and albedo suggested that Jovian satellite II (Europa) is covered "by H2O snow". Images taken by the Voyager space probes in the late 1970s (see left) reveal a smooth surface, with only a handful of craters larger than a few kilometres. These features are consistent with a relatively young, icy surface. Subsequent detailed investigations by the Galileo satellite strongly suggest that a substantial body of liquid water, heated by tidal friction, underlies a 5 to 50 km thick icy crust. The presence of this subterranean (subglacial?) ocean clearly makes Europa one of the two most interesting astrobiology targets in the Solar System. Over the last few years analyses of observations taken by both the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) on Hubble have revealed the presence of extended cloud semission near the polar regions, strongly suggesting that Europa's oceans may be vaporising into space. These clearly provide an opportunity for a fly-by mission to sample the sub-surface ocean. The emission is sporadic, however. The present program is one of several that aim to characterise the frequency and prominence of these events, in this case using STIS to obtain far-UV observations as Europa transit's Jupiter.

Past weeks:
page by Neill Reid, updated 3/1/2018
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