This week on HST

HST Programs: October 3 - October 9, 2016

Program Number Principal Investigator Program Title
14072 Martha L. Boyer, Space Telescope Science Institute The Evolution of Metal-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars
14076 Boris T. Gaensicke, The University of Warwick An HST legacy ultraviolet spectroscopic survey of the 13pc white dwarf sample
14096 Dan Coe, Space Telescope Science Institute - ESA RELICS: Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey
14115 Schuyler D. Van Dyk, California Institute of Technology The Stellar Origins of Supernovae
14132 Mark B. Peacock, Michigan State University The spatial distribution of hot stellar populations in M31's globular clusters
14141 Guy Worthey, Washington State University NGSL Extension 1. Hot Stars and Evolved Stars
14163 Mickael Rigault, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin Honing Type Ia Supernovae as Distance Indicators, Exploiting Environmental Bias for H0 and w.
14178 Matthew A. Malkan, University of California - Los Angeles WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey: The WISP Deep Fields
14212 Karl Stapelfeldt, Jet Propulsion Laboratory A Snapshot Imaging Survey of Spitzer-selected Young Stellar Objects in Nearby Star Formation Regions*.t23
14216 Robert P. Kirshner, Harvard University RAISIN2: Tracers of cosmic expansion with SN IA in the IR
14230 Jane R. Rigby, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center The Ultimate Emission Line Diagnostics Study at z=1.4
14350 Thomas R. Ayres, University of Colorado at Boulder Procyon: New Candidate for the Dynamo Clinical Trial
14461 David Ehrenreich, Observatoire de Geneve Atmospheric Escape from the Closest Super-Earth
14594 Rich Bielby, Durham Univ. QSAGE: QSO Sightline And Galaxy Evolution
14620 Ryan F Trainor, University of California - Berkeley QSO and Galaxy Growth Probed by Faint Lya-Emitters
14653 James Lowenthal, Smith College The most luminous galaxies: strongly lensed SMGs at 1
14663 Lifan Wang, Texas A & M University Imaging Polarimetry of Light Echoes around SN 2014J
14664 Thomas G. Beatty, The Pennsylvania State University Phase-Resolved Emission Spectroscopy of the Transiting Brown Dwarf KELT-1b Using WFC3
14668 Alex V. Filippenko, University of California - Berkeley Continuing a Snapshot Survey of the Sites of Recent, Nearby Supernovae: Cycle 24
14677 Tim Schrabback, Universitat Bonn, Argelander Institute for Astronomy Probing the most distant high-mass galaxy clusters from SPT with HST weak lensing observations
14685 Wen-fai Fong, University of Arizona Underlying Hosts or Highly-Kicked? Determining the Nature of Host-less Short Gamma-ray Bursts with HST
14704 Charlie Conroy, Harvard University A Year in the Whirlpool
14707 Philip Louis Massey, Lowell Observatory Searching for the Most Massive Stars in M31 and M33
14713 Raghvendra Sahai, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Binarity and Accretion Activity in AGB Stars with Variable UV and X-Ray Emission
14734 Nitya Kallivayalil, The University of Virginia Milky Way Cosmology: Laying the Foundation for Full 6-D Dynamical Mapping of the Nearby Universe
14767 David Kent Sing, University of Exeter The Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanetary Treasury Program
14781 Chris S. Kochanek, The Ohio State University Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Monitoring of an ASAS-SN Tidal Disruption Event
14793 Jacob L. Bean, University of Chicago The First Precise Atmospheric Metallicity Measurement for a Sub-Jovian Exoplanet
14802 Dean C. Hines, Space Telescope Science Institute Synoptic Imaging Polarimetry Observations of CRL 2688: What's Whipping the Egg?
14840 Andrea Bellini, Space Telescope Science Institute Schedule Gap Pilot

Selected highlights

GO 14096: RELICS: Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey

Hubble image and mass map for the cluster ACT-CL J0102-4915, one of the clusters included in the RELICS program
The overwhelming majority of galaxies in the universe are found in clusters. As such, those systems offer an important means of tracing the development of large-scale structure through the history of the universe. Moreover, as intense concentrations of mass, galaxy clusters provide highly efficient gravitational lenses, capable of concentrating and magnifying light from background high redshift galaxies to allow detailed spectropic investigations of star formation in the early universe. Hubble imaging has already revealed lensed arcs and detailed sub-structure within a handful of rich clusters. At the same time, the lensing characteristics provide information on the mass distribution within the lensing cluster. The present program builds on the highly successful CLASH program,which used 17-colour ACS/WFC3 images to map 25 galaxy clusters, tracing the mas profile and the dark matter distribution, and the Frontier Fields program, targeting six clusters for deep multi-colour imaging. RELICS is focused on using massive galaxy clusters as gravitational telescopes, searching for strongly lensed background galaxies drawn from the high redshift universe. Imaging 46 fields in 41 galaxy clusters, this program aims to identify galaxies with redshifts in the range 9 < z < 12. By targeting strongly-lensing clusters, standard models for galaxy evolution suggest that the program can deliver ~100 galaxies in that redshift range, together with more than 150 galaxies at z~8. A significant number of these galaxies should be brighter than H~25.5, and therefore accessible to more detailed follow-up observations. Conversely, the actual number of galaxies detected will set constraints on the galaxy number-redshift distribution, and the overall formation and assembly history.

GO 14163: Honing Type Ia Supernovae as Distance Indicators, Exploiting Environmental Bias for H0 and w.

Supernova in M101
Supernovae have long attracted the attention of both amateur and professional astronomers as a means of studying the violent eruption and death of massive stars and degenerates. However, in the last decade they have also acquired considerable importance as distance indicators, tracing the expansion of the universe to redshifts well beyond the reach of more conventional yardsticks, such as cepheids, and providing a key underpinning for the hypothesised existence of dark energy. Understanding the supernovae themselves, and, in particular, their progenitors, is key to accurately interpreting their luminosities and distances. Recent observations have suggested that there may be a correlation between the brightnesses of Type Ia supernovae and some characteristics of their local environment; specifically, supernovae found in close proximity to star formation appear to be sub-luminous. The present SNAP program uses the UVIS camera on WFC3 to image the locations of supernovae that have been used to map the Hubble flow, and will use the UV-to-optical flux ratio to characterise the local environment, potentially offering a means of tightening the distribution in the Hubble diagram.

GO 14767: The Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanetary Treasury Program

Artist's impression of the GJ 1214 system
The first exoplanet, 51 Peg b, was discovered through radial velocity measurements in 1995. 51 Pegb was followed by a trickle, and then a flood of other discoveries, as astronomers realised that there were other solar systems radically different from our own, where "hot jupiters" led to short-period, high-amplitude velocity variations. Then, in 1999, came the inevitable discovery that one of those hot jupiters. HD 209458b, was in an orbit aligned with our line of sight to the star, resulting in transits. Since that date, the number of known transiting exoplanet systems has grown to more than 100 from ground-based observations, most detected through wide-field photometric surveys, while the high-sensitivity data provided by Kepler has added a further 1000+ confirmed systems and ~2000 additional candidates. Transiting systems not only provide an accurate measure of the planetary radius (at least relative to the parent star), they also provide us with an opportunity to probe the atmospheric composition through spectroscopy during the transit. Hubble has made significant inroads in this area, while Spitzer has contributed measurements of planetary emissivity through observations during and after eclipse. The James Webb Space Telescope has the capability to revolutionise our knowledge in this field through highly sensitiive observations at near and mid-infra red wavelengths. The present program aims to lay the foundation for those programs by using Hubble to compile multiwavelength (UV to near-IR) spectroscopic observations of 20 exoplanets. The targets are all gas giants, ranging from super-jovian masses to neptunian masses. The observations will be obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the near-infrared grisms on Wide Field Camera 3.

GO 14668: Continuing a Snapshot Survey of the Sites of Recent, Nearby Supernovae - Cycle 24

A recent supernova in M100
Supernovae mark the (spectacular) evolutionary endpoint for a subset of stellar systems. Standard models predict that they originate from massive stars and (probably) close binaries with a compact (WD, neutron star) component, but there are still some questions remaining over whether we fully understand the range of possible progenitors. The last decade has seen the development of a number of large-scale programs, usually using moderate-sized telescopes, that are dedicated to monitoring (relatively nearby galaxies, searching for new supernovae. This program builds on observations taken in several previous cycles, and aims to obtain follow-up multi-waveband images of nearby galaxies, focusing on the sites of recent supernovae. The program concentrates on systems within 20 Mpc of the Milky Way. The observations are taken well after maximum, with the aim of using the unparalleled angular resolution of WFC3 to identify the fading remnant, search for evidence for light echoes,characterise the local stellar population and perhaps determine the nature of the likely progenitor.

Past weeks:
page by Neill Reid, updated 23/12/2014
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