Spitzer SAGE-SMC Infrared Photometry of Massive Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

Bonanos, A. Z., Lennon, D. J., Köhlinger, F., van Loon, J. Th., Massa, D. L., Sewilo, M., Evans, C. J., Panagia, N., Babler, B. L., Block, M., Bracker, S., Engelbracht, C. W., Gordon, K. D., Hora, J. L., Indebetouw, R., Meade, M. R., Meixner, M., Misselt, K. A., Robitaille, T. P., Shiao, B., & Whitney, B. A.
2010, The Astronomical Journal, 140, 416

We present a catalog of 5324 massive stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 3654 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE-SMC survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3to24 μm in the UBVIJHKs +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to those of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), finding that the brightest infrared sources in the SMC are also the red supergiants, supergiant B[e] (sgB[e]) stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf-Rayet stars, with the latter exhibiting less infrared excess, the red supergiants being less dusty and the sgB[e] stars being on average less luminous. Among the objects detected at 24 μm in the SMC are a few very luminous hypergiants, four B-type stars with peculiar, flat spectral energy distributions, and all three known luminous blue variables. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and suggest a novel method of confirming Be star candidates photometrically. We find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in our SMC catalog, respectively, when compared to the LMC catalog, and that the SMC Be stars occur at higher luminosities. We estimate mass-loss rates for the red supergiants, confirming the correlation with luminosity even at the metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we confirm the new class of stars displaying composite A & F type spectra, the sgB[e] nature of 2dFS1804 and find the F0 supergiant 2dFS3528 to be a candidate luminous blue variable with cold dust.


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