Bibliography --- Myron Smith


Buta, R. J. and Smith, M. A. 1979, "The Light Variations of Nonradial Pulsations. I. Theory and Application to Line Profile Variations," Ap. J., 232, 213.

Campos, A. J., and Smith, M. A. 1980, "Pulsation Mode Classification in Line Profile Variables. II. Delta Scuti and Rho Puppis," Ap. J., 238, 668.

Cranmer, S. R., Smith, M. A., and Robinson, R. D. 2000, "A Multiwavelength Campaign on gamma Cas: IV. The Case for Illuminated Disk-Enhanced Wind Streams" Ap. J., 537, 433

Dominy, J. F., and Smith, M. A. 1978, "A Spectroscopic Analysis of 14 Comae and Related Shell Stars," Ap. J., 217, 494.

Gray, D., and Smith, M. A. 1979, "The Accuracy of Line Profile Measurements," Pub. A.S.P., 91, 719.

Mathys, G., and Smith, M. A. 2000, "Can Magnetic Fields be Detected in Be Stars," in ASP Conf. Ser., 214, p.316.

Penrod, G. D., and Smith, M. A. 1988, "Nonradial Modes in Early-B Stars: An Initial Look at their Influence on the Circumstellar Environment," Relations between Chromospheric-Coronal Heating and Mass Loss, Third Trieste Workshop, eds. J. B. Zirker and R. Stalio, pp. 394.

Penrod, G. D. and Smith, M. A. 1985, "Nonradial Pulsations and Mass Loss in Early B stars," NASA/GSFC Conf. on the Origin of Nonradiative Processes in Hot stars, ed. A. B. Underhill, NASA Publ. 2358, p. 53.

Robinson, R. D., and Smith, M. A. 2000, "A Search for Rotational Modulation of X-ray Centers on the Classical Be star gamma Cassiopeiae," Ap. J., 540, 474.

Robinson, R. D., Smith, M. A., & Henry, G. W. 2002, "X-ray and Optical Variations in the Classical Be Stars gamma Cassiopeia: The Discovery of a Possible Magnetic Dynamo, ApJ, 575, 435.

Smith, M. A. 1968, "Use of the Borgman-LPL Alpha Index as a Photometric Metal Indicator," Pub. A.S.P, 80, 223.

Smith, M. A., and Strom, S. E. 1969, "Observational Results Concerning Departures from LTE in Late B Stars," Ap. J., 158, 1161.

Smith, M. A. 1970, "An Alternative to Conti's Spectroscopic Criterion for the Detection of Metallic LIne A Stars," Ap. J., 161, 181.

Smith, M. A. 1971, "The Incidence of Metallicism Among Mid-A Stars," A. J., 76, 896.

Smith, M. A. 1971, "Microturbulence and Abundances in Am Stars: Inferences Concerning Metallicism," Astron. Astrophys., 11, 325.

Smith, M. A. 1972, "Equivalent Width Data for Several Am Stars," Ast. Ap. Suppl., 5, 81.

Smith, M. A. 1972, "On Circumstellar Gas Emission among Pre-Main Sequence Stars In Ic Ori and NGC 2264," Ap. J., 175, 765.

Smith, M. A. 1972, "Metallicism in Border Regions of the Am Domain: I. Extremely Young Am Stars in the Ic Ori Association," Ap. J., 175, 617.

Smith, M. A. 1972, "On the Nature of HD 161227," Pub. A.S.P., 84, 281.

Smith, M. A. 1972, "The Unresolved Double-LIned Binary HR 7774," Astron. Astrophys., 19, 312.

Smith, M. A. 1973, "Abundance Anomalies as Probes of Envelopes in Am Stars," Pub. A.S.P., 84, 644.

Smith, M. A. 1973, "Metallicism in Border Regions of the Am Domain. II. Analysis of the Fm Stars," Ap. J. Suppl., 25, 277.
Smith, M. A. 1973, "Microturbulence in A Stars as Derived from LIne Profiles," Ap. J., 182, 159.

Smith, M. A. 1974, "Metallicism in Border Regions of the Am Domain. III. Analysis of the Hot Stars alpha Gem A and B and Theta Leonis," Ap.J., 189, 101.

Smith, M. A. 1974, "Observed Departures from LTE in Stellar Fe I Lines I. The Sun," Ap. J., 190, 481.

Smith, M. A. 1974, "Observed Departures from LTE in Stellar Fe I Lines II. Arcturus," Ap. J., 191, 623.

Smith, M. A. , and Rydgren, A. E. 1974 , "An Empirical LIne Blanketing Study of Am Stars," Ap. J., 193, 125.

Smith, M. A., and Parsons, S. 1975, "Applications of Fourier Analysis to Broadening of Stellar line Profiles. I. Three Mn Stars," Ap. J. Suppl., 29, 341.

Smith, M. A. 1975, "Applications of Fourier Analysis to Broadening of Stellar Line Progiles II. A Saturated line in 32 Aqr and in Sirius," Ap. J., 203, 603.

Smith, M. A. 1975, "Asymmetries in Absorption Lines of Manganese Stars," Ap. J., 205, 603.

Smith, M. A., Testerman, L., and Evans, J. C. 1975, "Applications of Fourier Analysis to Broadening of Stellar Line Profiles. III. Macro-/MicroTurbulence in Solar Line Profiles," Ap. J., 207,308.

Smith M. A. 1976, "Applications of Fourier Analysis to Broadening of Stellar Line Profiles IV. A Technique for Separating Macroturbulence from Rotation," Ap. J., 208, 487.

Smith, M. A., and Gray, D. F. 1976, "Fourier Analysis of Spectral Line Profiles: A New Tool for an Old Art," invited review, Pub. A.S.P., 88, 809.

Smith, M. A., and Karp, A. H. 1976, "Line Profile Variability aong Early B-Type Stars," Solar and Stellar Pulsation, ed. A. N. Cox, LANL Publ. LA- 6544-C, p. 289.

Smith, M. A. 1977, "Nonradial Pulsations in Early to Mid B-Type Stars," Ap. J., 215, 574.

Smith, M. A. 1978, "Photospheric Velocity Fields in Tau Scorpii," Ap. J., 219, 522.

Smith, M. A. 1978, "An Anti-Correlation between Macroturbulence and Age in Solar-Type Dwarfs," Ap. J., 224, 584.

Smith, M. A. 1978, "Macroturbulence in Late-Type Dwarfs and Luminous Stars from Fourier Analysis of Line Profiles," Fourth Colloq. on Astrophysics, ed. M. Hack, Trieste Obsy, p. 512.

Smith, M. A. 1978, "Nonradial Pulsation in Iota Herculis and 10 Lacertae," Ap. J., 224, 927.

Smith, M. A. 1978, "Observations of the Line Profile Variable B Stars," Fourth Colloq. on Astrophysics, ed. M. Hack, Trieste Obsy.

Smith, M. A., and McCall, M. L. 1978, "Dynamics of the Photosphere and Shells in the beta Cephei Star Gamma Pegasi," Ap. J., 221, 861.

Smith, M. A., and McCall M. L. 1978, "Undulations of a B Star: 53 Persei," Ap. J., 223, 221.
Smith, M. A. 1979, "The Behavior of Macroturbulence Among Luminous Late G and Early K Stars," Ap. J., 231, 477.

Smith, M. A. 1979, "Rotational Studies in Late-Type Stars," Proc. IAU Trans., VXVIIth Gen. Assem.

Smith, M. A., and Buta, R. J. 1979, "A Nonradial Mode Identification in 53 Persei," Ap. J., 232,L127.

Smith, M. A., and Karp, A. H. 1979, "Deep Photospheric Flows in Tau Scorpii," Ap. J., 230, 156.

Smith, M. A. and Stern, S. A. 1979, "A Test of the Nonradial Pulsation Hypothesis by Means of Simulated Line Profile Variations," A. J., 84, 1363.

Smith, M. A. 1980, "A Connection between Macroturbulence and Nonradial Oscillations in Late-Type Stars, " Ap. J., 242, L115.

Smith, M. A. 1980, "Macroturbulence in Late-Type Stars,"I.A.U. Colloq. No. 51, ed. D. Gray and J. Linsky, (New York: Springer-Verlag), p. 126.

Smith, M. A. 1980 "The Line Profile Variable B Stars," Conf. on Current Problems in Stellar Pulsation Instabilities, ed. D. Fischel, J. R. Lesh, and W. Sparks, NASA Tech. Mem. 80625, p. 391.

Smith, M. A. 1980 , "Nonradial m-Mode Changes in the 53 Per Variable 22 Orionis," Ap. J., 242, 261.

Smith, M. A. 1980, "Pulsation Mode Classification in Line Profile Variables III. Multimode Pulsations in 12 Lacertae," Ap. J., 240, 149.

Smith, M. A. 1980, "Pulsation Modes in B Stars Having Profile Variations," Nonradial and Nonlinear Stellar Pulsations, ed. H. Hill, (New York: Springer-Verlag), p. 60.

Smith, M. A. 1981, "Comment," Nice Workshop on Pulsating B Stars, ed C. Sterken, (Nice Observatoire Cent.), p. 309.

Smith, M. A. 1981, "Modal Characteristics in beta Cephei Stars," Nice Workshop on Pulsating B Stars, ed. C. Sterken, (Nice Observatoire Cent. ), p. 317.

Smith, M. A. 1981, "Nonradial Oscillations: The Cause of Macroturbulence in Late-Type Giant Stars," Colloq. on Stellar Hydrodynamics, ed. A. W. Cox, p. 307.

Smith, M. A. 1981, "Nonradial Pulsations in the ZAMS Star Upsilon Orionis", Ap. J., 248, 214.

Smith, M. A. 1981, "The Phantom Lines in Iota Herculis," Ap. J., 248, 214.

Smith, M. A. 1981, "Recent Velocity Results in Late Type Stars," Solar Instrumentation: What's Next?," Sac Peak Obsy. Proc., ed. R. B. Dunn, Sunspot, N.M., p. 217.

Smith, M. A., and Ebbets, D. 1981, "Spectral Variations in Rho Leonis (B1 Iab): From Subphotosphere to Outer Atmosphere," Ap. J., 247, 158.

Smith, M. A. 1982, "Nonradial Oscillations in Early-Type Stars? g- or r-Modes?," Ap. J., 254, 708.

Smith, M. A. 1982, "Precise Velocity Measurements.I. A Preliminary Search for Oscillations," Ap. J., 254, 708.

Smith, M. A. 1982, "Pulsational Mode Typing in Line Profile Variables. IV. Selected Delta Scuti Stars," Ap. J., 254, 242.

Smith, M. A. 1983, "A 10830A vs. X-Ray Correlation Among Late-Type Stars," A. J., 88, 1031.

Smith, M. A. 1983, "Precise Velocity Measurements. II. A Possible Detection of Nonradial Oscillations in Aldebaran and Arcturus, " Ap. J., 265, 325.

Smith, M. A. 1983, "Pulsational Mode Typing in Line Profile Variables. V. Multimodes and 'Moving Shells' in Nu Eridani," Ap. J., 265, 338.

Smith, M. A. 1983, "Rotational Velocities ofr a New Sample of F-K Dwarfs with X-Ray Emission," Pub. A.S.P., 95, 268.

Smith, M. A., Beckers, J. M., and Barden, S. C. 1983, "Rotation among Orion Ic Stars: Angular Momentum Considerations," Ap. J., 271 , 237.

Smith, M. A., Pravdo, S. H., and Ku, W. H. 1983, "X-Rays and Rotation among Post T-Tauri G Stars in Orion Ic," Ap. J., 271, 237.

Smith, M. A., and Jaksha, D. 1984, "The NSO Initiative to Pursue the Solar- Stellar Connection with the McMath Solar Telescope," Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, ed. S. Baliunas and L. Hartmann (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), p. 182.

Smith, M. A., Fitch, W. C., Africano, J. A., Goodrich, B., and Halbedahl, H. 1984, "Stable Nonradial Oscillations in 53 Persei from 1977 to 1983," Ap. J., 282, 226.

Smith, M. A. 1985, "Pulsational Mode-Typing in Line Profile Variables VI. Nonradial Modes in the Remarkable B Star Epsilon Persei, " Ap. J., 288, 266.

Smith, M. A. 1985, "The Nonradial Oscillations of Spica I. Two Commensurable Modes," Ap. J., 297, 206.

Smith, M. A. 1985, "The Nonradial Oscillations of Spica II. A Quasi-Toroidal Mode," Ap. J., 297, 224.

Smith, M. A. 1986, "The Nonradial Oscillations of Epsilon Persei I. A Lawn-Sprinkling Shock," Ap. J., 307, 213.

Smith, M. A. 1986, "Nonradial Pulsations in Massive Stars: Observations and Oddities," Pub. ASP, 98, 33.

Smith, M. A. 1986, "Pulsational Mode-Typing in Line Profile Variables VII.Commensurable Modes and Non-Uniform Period Behavior in Delta Scorpii," Ap. J., 304, 728.

Smith, M. A. 1987, "The McMath Solar Stellar Nighttime Program," SHIRSOG Workshop Proc., ed. M. Giampapa, NOAO Publ., Sept., 1986, p. 124.

Smith, M. A. 1987, "Nonlinear Behavior of Nonradial Oscillations in Epsilon Persei," Cox Memorial Conf. Proc., ed. A. N. Cox, (Berlin: Springer), p. 79.

Smith, M. A. 1987, "Observations of Nonradial Pulsations in OB Stars: A Decade of Progress," Hydrodynamic/MHD Problems in Stars, ed. Y. Osaki, (Tokyo: Univ. Tokyo Press), p. 145.

Smith, M. A. 1987, "Observational Requirements for a Synoptic Spectroscopic Study of Nonradial Pulsations in OB Stars," SHIRSOG Workshop Proc., ed. M. Giampapa, NOAO Publ., Sept. 1986, p. 21.

Smith, M. A. , Huang, Y.-R., and Livingston, W. C.1987, "The Amplification of Solar-Line Asymmetries by Rotation," Pub. ASP, 99, 297.

Smith, M. A., Fullerton, A. W., and Percy, J. R. 1987, "The Nonradial Oscilations of Epsilon Persei II. Nonlinear Characteristics," Ap. J., 320, 768.

Smith, M. A., Gies, D., and Penrod, D. 1987, "Spectral Transients in the Line Profiles of Lambda Eridani, " IAU Colloq. No. 92, Physics of Be Stars, ed. A. Slettebak and T. Snow, p. 464.

Smith, M. A., Graves, J. E., Jaksha, D. B., Plymate, C. L., and Ramsey, L. W. 1987, "Improvements in Spectroscopic Continuum-Noise with Fiber-Optics Illumination of a Reticon Array," Pub. ASP, 99, p. 654.

Smith, M. A. 1988, "Nonradial Pulsations and Early-Be Stars: Angular Momentum Considerations, " Proc. Fourth Trieste Conf., Pulsation and Mass Loss in Stars, ed. R. Stalio and L. A. Willson, (Dordrecht: Kluwer), p. 251.

Smith, M. A. 1988, "Post-Zero Age Main Sequence among Late-Type Stars," Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, ed. J. Linsky and R. Stencel, (Dordrecht: Reidel), p. 192.

Smith, M. A. 1988, "Nonradial Pulsations in B Stars: Matchmaking for a G.N.A.T.," Automatic Photometric Telescopes, ed. D. Hayes and R. Genet, (Mesa: Fairborn Press), p. 143.

Smith, M. A. 1989, "Transients in the He I 6678A Line of Lambda Eridani: Magnetic Flaring in Quasi Cycles?," Ap. J. Suppl, 70, 357.

Smith, M. A., Patten, B. M., and Goldberg, L. 1989, "Radial Velocity Variaations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her," A.J., 98, 2233.

Smith, M. A. 1990, "Search for Pulsation in the Twin FO Stars Gamma Vir N/S," A.J., 100, 1943.

Smith, M. A. 1990, "The Detection of Stellar Velocity Fields from Line Profile Analysis," Optical Spectroscopic Techniques for the 1990s, SPIE Proc. Vol 1318, p. 138.

Smith, M. A. 1990, "Revised Parameterization of the Dispersion Constants for High Dispersion IUE Images," Evolution in Astrophysics, ESO SP-310, p. 627.

Smith, M. A. 1990, "A New Approach to Remove Interoder Background in High Dispersion Images," Evolution in Astrophysics, ESO SP-310, p. 631.

Smith, M. A. and Grady, C. A. 1990, "Chromospheric H-alpha Activity in alpha Ori," Mass and Angular Momentum Loss in Massive Stars, ed. L. A. Willson and R. Stalio, (Dordrecht: Kluwer), p. 343.

Smith, M. A., Peters, G. J. , and Grady, C. A. 1991, "Circumstellar Material around lambda Eridani I. Geometry and Kinematics during 1987-88," Ap. J., 367, 302.

Smith, M. A. 1991, "Spectral Line Transients in lambda Eridani and Related Be Stars," Rapid Variability of OB Stars, ed. D. Baade, ESO Pub. No. 36, p. 59.

Smith, M. A. 1992, "beta Cephei Pulsation," The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia, ed. S. Maran, (New York: Van Nostrand), p. 708.

Smith, M. A. 1992, "Nonradial Pulsation in B-Type Stars," The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia, ed. S. Maran, (New York : Van Nostand), p. 763.

Smith, M. A. 1992, "A Model for 'Dimples' in the B2e Star lambda Eri," Nonisotropic and Variable Outflows from Stars," ASP Conf. Vol. 22, ed. L. Drissen, (San Franciso: BookCrafters), p. 67.

Smith, M. A. 1993 and Polidan, R. S., "Dynamic Processes in Be Star Atmospheres I. Dimples Formation in the He I 6678A Line of lambda Eridani," Ap. J., 408, 323.

Smith, M. A. , Grady, C. A., Peters, G. J., and Feigelson, E. D. 1993, "A Giant X-Ray Flare on lambda Eridani," Ap. J., 409, L49.

Smith, M. A., Hubeny, I., Lanz, T., and Meylan, T. 1994, "Dynamic Processes in Be Star Atmospheres II. He I 2P-nD Line Formation," Ap. J., 432, 392.

Smith, M. A., 1994, "Photospheric Activity in Selected Be Stars," Rotation, Pulsation, and Mass Loss, ed. L. Balona and H. Henrichs, (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 241.

Smith, M. A., Hubeny, I, and Lanz, T. 1994, "Puzzling Problems of He I Line Formation in Early B Stars," Rotation, Pulsation, and Mass Loss, ed. L. Balona and H. Henrichs, (Dordrecht: Kluwer), p. 273.

Smith, M. A., and Huang, L. 1994, "NRP Mode Typing for 53 Persei: Results from Voyager Photometry," Rotation, Pulsation, and Mass Loss, ed. L. Balona and H. Henrichs, (Dordrecht: Kluwer), 37.

Smith, M. A. 1995, "Dynamic Processes in Be Star Atmospheres. III. Rapid Multi-Wavelength Variability in gamma Cas," Ap. J., 442, 812.

Smith, M. A. et al .1996, "Dynamic Processes in Be Star Atmospheres. IV. Common Attributes of Line Profile 'Dimples'", ApJ, 469, 336.

Smith, M. A. et al. 1997a, "Dynamic Processes in Be Star Atmospheres. V. Correlated Helium Line Emissions in lambda Eri," Ap. J., 481, 467.

Smith, M. A. et al. 1997b, "Dynamic Processes in Be Stars Atmospheres. VI. Correlated X-Ray, UV, and Optical Variations in lambda Eri," Ap. J., 481, 479.

Smith, M. A. and Robinson, R. D. 1998, "Critical IUE Coverage of a Rotational Cycle of Gamma Cas," Ultraviolet Astrophysics beyond the IUE Final Archive, ed. R. Harris, ESA SP-413, p. 281.

Smith, M. A. 1998, "The IUE: Riding Herd on Fresh Astrophysics for B Stars," Ultraviolet Astrophysics beyond the IUE Final Archive, ed. R. Harris, ESA SP-413, p. 633.

Smith, M. A., 1998, "The X-rays from Cassiopeia's Lap," Mercury, Vol. 27, No. 2, p.27.

Smith, M. A., Robinson, R. D., and Corbet, R. H. D. 1998, "A Multiwavelength Campaignon gamma Cas: I. The Case for Surface X-ray Flaring, Ap. J., 503, 877.

Smith, M. A., Robinson, R. D., and Hatzes, A. P. 1998, "A Multiwavelength Campaign on gamma Cas: II. The Case for Co-Rotating, Circumstellar Clouds," Ap. J. 507, 945.

Smith, M. A., and Robinson, R. D. 1999, "A Multiwavelength Campaign on gamma Cas: III. The Case for Magnetically-Controlled Circumstellar Kinematics," Ap. J., 517, 866.

Smith, M. A. 1999, "A Study of Time-Dependent Background & Continuum Flux Levels in IUE High-Dispersion SWP Images," Pub. ASP, 111, 722.

Smith, M. A., and Roche, P., 1999, "Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Be/X-Ray Pulsar X Persei/4U0352+309 with ORFEUS-2 and the IUE," Ap. J., 522, 444.

Smith, M. A. 1999, "The Be Phenomenon in Early-Type Stars: IAU Colloq. No. 175," 111, 1472. Smith, M. A., Henrichs, H. F., and Fabregat, J. 2000, "The Be Phenomenon in Early-Type Stars," IAU Colloq. 175, ASP Conf. Ser., vol 214.

Smith, M. A. 2000, "A UV Spectrophotometric Technique for Measuring Temperatures of CS Structures over B Stars," in ASP Conf. Ser., 214, 216.

Smith, M. A. 2000, "Recent Spectroscopic Evidence for Aperiodic Activity in Classical Be Stars," in ASP Conf. Ser., 214, 292.

Smith, M. A. 2000, "The Changing X-ray Properties of gamma Cas," in ASP Conf. Ser., 214, 352.

Smith, M. A., and Groote, D. 2001, "Wind Circulation in Selected Rotating Magnetic Early-B Stars," Astron. Astrophys., 372, 208.

Smith, M. A. 2001, "A Study of the Wavelength Calibration of NEWSIPS High-Dispersion Spectra," Pub. A.S.P., 113, 882.

Smith, M. A. 2001, "Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of Variable Early-Type Be and Be Stars Derived from High-Resolution IUE Data," Ap. J., 562, 998.

Smith, M. A., and Robinson, R. D. 2003, "Periods, Cycles, and Chaos in the High-Energy Emissions of gamma Cas," in Interplay of Periodic, Cyclic, and Stochastic Variability in Selected Areas of the H-R Diagram, ASP Conf. Ser. 292, 263

Smith, M. A. 2003, "Far-UV Analysis of Bp Stars with Co-rotating Disks," Conf. on Magnetic Fields in O, B, & A stars, ed. L. Balona, H. Henrichs, and T. Medupe, ASP Conf. Ser. 305, 310

Smith, M. A., and Jeffery, C. S. "Spectral Response of the Pulsationally Induced Shocks in the Atmosphere of BW Vulpeculae," MNRAS, 341, 1141

Smith, M. A., Cohen, D. H., Gu, M. F., Robinson, R. D., Evans, N. R., and Schran, P. 2004, ApJ, 600, 972

Smith, M. A., and Fullerton, A. W., "A Revised Geometry for the Magnetic Wind of theta-1 Orionis C," PASP, 117, 13, 2005

Smith, M. A., Sterken, C., and Fullerton, A. W. "Far-Ultraviolet and Optical Observations of BW Vulpeculae," 2006, ApJ, 634, 1300,

Smith, M. A., and Balona, L. A. "The Remarkable Be Star HD 110432 (BZ Cru)," 2006, ApJ, 640, 491

Smith, M. A., Henry, G. W., Vishniac E., ``Rotational and Cyclical Variability in gamma Cas," 2006, ApJ, 647, 1375

Smith, M. A., Wade, G. A., et al. "The magnetic Bp Star 36 Lyncis: II. A spectroscopic study of its co-rotating Disk," 2006, A&A, 458, 569

Smith, M. A. "Variations of the HeII 1640 Angstrom line in B0e-B2.5e stars," 2006, A&A,. 459, 215

Wade, G., M A. Smith, et al. "The magnetic Bp Star 36 Lyncis: I. Magnetic and photospheric properties," 2006, A&A, 458, 580, 2006

Worden, S. P., Dunn, R. B., Smith, M. A., and Zirker, J. B. 1982, "An Air Force/NSF Initiative to Study the Origins of Solar Activity," Second Cambridge on Cool Stars, ed. S. Baliunas and L. Hartmann, SAO Report No. 392.

msmith at stsci.edu
Last updated 20 May 2006