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Publication Samples

Citizen Science:

"Citizen Science with Hubble Space Telescope Data", Christian, C.A., 2015, Computing in Science and Engineering,17, 12.

“Early Results from Star Date: M83 - A Citizen Science Project to Age Date Star Clusters in the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy”,  Heartley, Jeremy; Whitmore, B. C.; Blair, W. P.; Christian, C. A.; Donaldson, T.; Hammer, D.; Smith, S.; Viana, A. 2014, AAS Meeting #223, #442.33.

"The Public Impact of Citizen Science Outreach and Education", 2013, Evolutionary Paths in Galaxy Morphology, CISRO, Sydney, Australia

"Citizen Science Contributions to Astronomy Research", 2012. Organizations, People and Strategies in Astronomy Vol. 1, 183.

3D Astronomy Project:
“Touchable Astronomy: Exploring STEM Careers For The Visually Impaired”, 2017 C. Christian, T. Madura , D. Hurd , W. Diaz-Merced , and K. Silberman, 2017, 68th International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Adelaide Australia

"You Can Touch These! Creating 3d Tactile Representations Of Hubble Space Telescope Images”, Christian, C.A, Nota, A., Greenfield, P., Grice, N., Shaheen, N. 2015, Journal and Review of Astronomy Education and Outreach, 3

3D Printing Technology: A Unique Way of Making Hubble Space Telescope Images Accessible to Non-Visual Learners”, Grice, N.A., Christian, C.A., Nota, A., Greenfield, P. 2015, Journ. Blindness Innov. Research, v 15, no 1.

Touch This! Bringing HST Images to Life as 3D Models”, Christian, C., Nota, A., Greenfield, P., Grice, N., Shaheen, N. 2014, 65th Int. Astronaut. Congress 2014, E1.7.

Information Technology:
"Bringing Breakthroughs in Science to the Public Through Webcasting", 2002, 2005, BioAstronomy 2002, IAU 213, 549.

"Report on DTI's Live Streaming Internet Broadcast Experiments", 2002.

"Space Science Education Resource Directory", 2001, ADASS X, A.S.P. Conf Series, 238, 107.

"Hubble Space Telescope Space Science: First Web Simulcast with NPR Radio Program", 2001, Science Information Systems Newsletter, 49.

    See also "NPR Radio & Web Simulcasts: The Tour the Cosmos     Series" 2001, Webnet (now E-Learning from, 3, 30.

"National Information Infrastructure Testbed: Applications", 1994, Proceedings of Council On Competitiveness Conference: Breaking the Barriers to the NII, (Council On Competitiveness, Washington DC)

Education and Outreach:
“A Question and Answer Guide to Astronomy”, Christian, C. and Roy, Jean-Rene, 2017, Cambridge University Press.
"The Space Shuttle and Great Observatories", Christian, C., 2011, in Wings in Orbit, W. Hale, H. Lane, G. Chapline, K Lulla (eds.), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 320, ISBN: 978-0-16-0868-46-7
"A Questions and Answers Guide to Astronomy", Pierre-Yves Bely, Carol Christian, Jean-Rene Roy, 2010 Cambridge University Press.
"250 Reponses aux Questions Curieux d'Astronomy", Bely, P.Y., Roy, J.R., and Christian, C., 2008 Gerfaut:France.
"Astronomical Visualization for Education" 2006, ADASS ,XVI. [poster PDF]
"Tools And Services For Education And Outreach – Accessing Real Astronomical Data" 2006, ADASS XV, ASP Conf. Ser. 351, 641.
“K-12 Education with the National Virtual Observatory”, Raddick, M. J.; O'Mullane, W.; Szalay, A. S.; Christian, C., 2005, ADASS X,ASP Conf. Ser., 347, 247.

"Creation of Educational Resources: A Research Scientist's Role" 2002, BioAstronomy 2002, 2004, IAU 213, 545.
"Amazing Space: Creating Educational Resources from Current Scientific Research Results" 2001, Journal of Science and Technology Education, 10, 38.
“Looking Beyond Boundaries: An Educational Experiment Utilizing Live Interactive Broadcasting on the Web” 2000, Office of Public Outreach Monograph.
"Education & Public Outreach: View from Research Institutions and Observatories" 2000, invited talk at the Virtual Observatories of the Future Conference.
"The Origins Education Forum" 2000, Decade Review Subcommittee: Panel on Astronomy Education and Policy
"Public Impact of Hubble Space Telescope" 1999, prepared for the HST 2nd Decade Committee and published as an Office of Public Outreach Monograph.
"HST Education & Outreach" 1999, prepared for the HST 2nd Decade Committee.

"On-Line Resources for Classroom Use: Data and Science Results from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other Missions "
1998, New Trends in Astronomy Teaching, L. Gouguenheim, D. McNally, and J. R. Percy (eds.), IAU Colloq., 162, p.74

"Cyber Hype or Educational Technology? What is being learned from all those BITS?", 1998, ADASS VII, A.S.P. Conference Series, 145, A., R. Albrecht & R.N. Hook and H.A. Bushouse, eds., p. 231.

Science, Research and Policy

Several papers in collaboration with the LEGUS team and the Westerlund 2 team.

“The Resolved Stellar Populations in the LEGUS Galaxies”, Sabbi, E., etal (LEGUS team), 2018, Ap. J., Suppl. 235, 23.

“Is the Massive Star Cluster Westerlund 2 Double?” Zeidler, P. etal (Westerlund 2 team including C. Christian), 2017, Proc. Int. Astr. Union, 12, S316.

“A High-resolution Multiband Survey of Westerlund 2 with the Hubble Space Telescope. III. The Present-day Stellar Mass Function”. Zeidler, P. etal (Westerlund 2 team including C. Christian), 2017, Astron. J., 153, 122J.

“A High-Resolution Multiband Survey Of Westerlund 2 With The Hubble Space Telescope. Ii. Mass Accretion In The Pre-Main-Sequence Population” Peter Zeidler. P. etal (Westerlund 2 team including C.Christian), 2016, Astron. J. 152. Retrieved from

"Location, Location, Location: So Where is Muzaffarabad? Geographic Information Systems Can Serve as Powerful Tools for Visualizing Complex Problems" 2007, Christian, C., Foreign Service Journal, 84, 37.

“Geospatial Data In Response To The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake And Indian Ocean Tsunami Of December 26, 2004” 2006, Kelmelis, J.A, Schwartz, L, Christian, C., Crawford, M., Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing Journal, 72, 862

"The Science News Metrics", 2005 Christian, C.A., Davidson, G., Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy 6, A. Heck (ed.), (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht), p141.

“Challenges: Adopting GIS for Diplomacy and Foreign Policy”, Christian C.A., ESRI Federal Users Conference Proceedings, see

“The Public Impact of HST: A Case Study”, 2004 Christian, C.A., Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy 5, A. Heck (ed.), (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht -- ISBN 1-4020-2570-X), 203.

"Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Interacting Galaxies NGC 2207 and IC 2163", 2000, with B. Elmegreen et. al., Astron. J., 120, 630.

"Hubble Space Telescope Photometry of the Metal-rich Globular Clusters NGC 6624 and NGC 6637", 2000, with J. Heasley et. al., Astron. J., 120, 879.

Myriad Hubble Heritage Presentations, 2000-1999.