Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant

Authors: Riess, Adam G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Challis, Peter; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Diercks, Alan; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gilliland, Ron L.; Hogan, Craig J.; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Leibundgut, B.; Phillips, M. M.; Reiss, David; Schmidt, Brian P.; Schommer, Robert A.; Smith, R. Chris; Spyromilio, J.; Stubbs, Christopher; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Tonry, John

Bibliographic Code: 1998AJ....116.1009R


We present spectral and photometric observations of 10 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.62 ≥ z ≥ 0.16. The luminosity distances of these objects are determined by methods that employ relations between SN Ia luminosity and light curve shape. Combined with previous data from our High-z Supernova Search Team and recent results by Riess et al., this expanded set of 16 high-redshift supernovae and a set of 34 nearby supernovae are used to place constraints on the following cosmological parameters: the Hubble constant (H0), the mass density (ΩM), the cosmological constant (i.e., the vacuum energy density, Ωλ), the deceleration parameter (q0), and the dynamical age of the universe (t0). The distances of the high-redshift SNe Ia are, on average, 10%-15% farther than expected in a low mass density (ΩM = 0.2) universe without a cosmological constant. Different light curve fitting methods, SN Ia subsamples, and prior constraints unanimously favor eternally expanding models with positive cosmological constant (i.e., Ωλ > 0) and a current acceleration of the expansion (i.e., q0 < 0). With no prior constraint on mass density other than Omega_M >= 0, the spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia are statistically consistent with q0 < 0 at the 2.8 σ and 3.9 σ confidence levels, and with Ωλ > 0 at the 3.0 σ and 4.0 σ confidence levels, for two different fitting methods, respectively. Fixing a ``minimal'' mass density, Omega_M = 0.2, results in the weakest detection, Ωλ > 0 at the 3.0 σ confidence level from one of the two methods. For a flat universe prior (ΩM + Ωλ = 1), the spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia require Ωλ > 0 at 7 σ and 9 σ formal statistical significance for the two different fitting methods. A universe closed by ordinary matter (i.e., ΩM = 1) is formally ruled out at the 7 σ to 8 σ confidence level for the two different fitting methods. We estimate the dynamical age of the universe to be 14.2 +/- 1.7 Gyr including systematic uncertainties in the current Cepheid distance scale. We estimate the likely effect of several sources of systematic error, including progenitor and metallicity evolution, extinction, sample selection bias, local perturbations in the expansion rate, gravitational lensing, and sample contamination. Presently, none of these effects appear to reconcile the data with Ωλ = 0 and q0 >= 0.

The Farthest Known Supernova: Support for an Accelerating Universe and a Glimpse of the Epoch of Deceleration

Authors: Riess, Adam G.; Nugent, Peter E.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tonry, John; Dickinson, Mark; Thompson, Rodger I.; Budavári, Tamás; Casertano, Stefano; Evans, Aaron S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Livio, Mario; Sanders, David B.; Shapley, Alice E.; Spinrad, Hyron; Steidel, Charles C.; Stern, Daniel; Surace, Jason; Veilleux, Sylvain

Bibliographic Code: 2001ApJ...560...49R


We present photometric observations of an apparent Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at a redshift of ~1.7, the farthest SN observed to date. The supernova, SN 1997ff, was discovered in a repeat observation by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N) and serendipitously monitored with NICMOS on HST throughout the Thompson et al. Guaranteed-Time Observer (GTO) campaign. The SN type can be determined from the host galaxy type: an evolved, red elliptical lacking enough recent star formation to provide a significant population of core-collapse supernovae. The classification is further supported by diagnostics available from the observed colors and temporal behavior of the SN, both of which match a typical SN Ia. The photometric record of the SN includes a dozen flux measurements in the I, J, and H bands spanning 35 days in the observed frame. The redshift derived from the SN photometry, z=1.7+/-0.1, is in excellent agreement with the redshift estimate of z=1.65+/-0.15 derived from the U300B450V606I814J110J125H160H165Ks photometry of the galaxy. Optical and near-infrared spectra of the host provide a very tentative spectroscopic redshift of 1.755. Fits to observations of the SN provide constraints for the redshift-distance relation of SNe Ia and a powerful test of the current accelerating universe hypothesis. The apparent SN brightness is consistent with that expected in the decelerating phase of the preferred cosmological model, ΩM~1/3,Ω. It is inconsistent with gray dust or simple luminosity evolution, candidate astrophysical effects that could mimic previous evidence for an accelerating universe from SNe Ia at z~0.5. We consider several sources of potential systematic error, including gravitational lensing, supernova misclassification, sample selection bias, and luminosity calibration errors. Currently, none of these effects alone appears likely to challenge our conclusions. Additional SNe Ia at z>1 will be required to test more exotic alternatives to the accelerating universe hypothesis and to probe the nature of dark energy. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Type Ia Supernova Discoveries at z > 1 from the Hubble Space Telescope: Evidence for Past Deceleration and Constraints on Dark Energy Evolution

Authors: Riess, Adam G.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Tonry, John; Casertano, Stefano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Challis, Peter; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Jha, Saurabh; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Leibundgut, Bruno; Dickinson, Mark; Livio, Mario; Giavalisco, Mauro; Steidel, Charles C.; Benítez, Txitxo; Tsvetanov, Zlatan

Bibliographic Code: 2004ApJ...607..665R


We have discovered 16 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have used them to provide the first conclusive evidence for cosmic deceleration that preceded the current epoch of cosmic acceleration. These objects, discovered during the course of the GOODS ACS Treasury program, include 6 of the 7 highest redshift SNe Ia known, all at z>1.25, and populate the Hubble diagram in unexplored territory. The luminosity distances to these objects and to 170 previously reported SNe Ia have been determined using empirical relations between light-curve shape and luminosity. A purely kinematic interpretation of the SN Ia sample provides evidence at the greater than 99% confidence level for a transition from deceleration to acceleration or, similarly, strong evidence for a cosmic jerk. Using a simple model of the expansion history, the transition between the two epochs is constrained to be at z=0.46+/-0.13. The data are consistent with the cosmic concordance model of ΩM~0.3,ΩΛ~0.7 (χ2dof=1.06) and are inconsistent with a simple model of evolution or dust as an alternative to dark energy. For a flat universe with a cosmological constant, we measure ΩM=0.29+/-0.050.03 (equivalently, ΩΛ=0.71). When combined with external flat-universe constraints, including the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure, we find w=-1.02 +0.13-0.19 (and w<-0.76 at the 95% confidence level) for an assumed static equation of state of dark energy, P=wρc2. Joint constraints on both the recent equation of state of dark energy, w0, and its time evolution, dw/dz, are a factor of ~8 more precise than the first estimates and twice as precise as those without the SNe Ia discovered with HST. Our constraints are consistent with the static nature of and value of w expected for a cosmological constant (i.e., w0=-1.0, dw/dz=0) and are inconsistent with very rapid evolution of dark energy. We address consequences of evolving dark energy for the fate of the universe.

Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

New Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries of Type Ia Supernovae at z >= 1: Narrowing Constraints on the Early Behavior of Dark Energy

Authors: Riess, Adam G.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Casertano, Stefano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Gold, Ben; Challis, Peter J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Jha, Saurabh; Li, Weidong; Tonry, John; Foley, Ryan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Dickinson, Mark; MacDonald, Emily; Eisenstein, Daniel; Livio, Mario; Younger, Josh; Xu, Chun; Dahlén, Tomas; Stern, Daniel

Bibliographic Code: 2007ApJ...659...98R


We have discovered 21 new Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have used them to trace the history of cosmic expansion over the last 10 billion yr. These objects, which include 13 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia at z>=1, were discovered during 14 epochs of reimaging of the GOODS fields North and South over 2 yr with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. Together with a recalibration of our previous HST-discovered SNe Ia, the full sample of 23 SNe Ia at z>=1 provides the highest redshift sample known. Combining these data with previous SN Ia data sets, we measured H(z) at discrete, uncorrelated epochs, reducing the uncertainty of H(z>1) from 50% to under 20%, strengthening the evidence for a cosmic jerk-the transition from deceleration in the past to acceleration in the present. The unique leverage of the HST high-redshift SNe Ia provides the first meaningful constraint on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter at z>=1. The result remains consistent with a cosmological constant [w(z)=-1] and rules out rapidly evolving dark energy (dw/dz>>1). The defining property of dark energy, its negative pressure, appears to be present at z>1, in the epoch preceding acceleration, with ~98% confidence in our primary fit. Moreover, the z>1 sample-averaged spectral energy distribution is consistent with that of the typical SN Ia over the last 10 Gyr, indicating that any spectral evolution of the properties of SNe Ia with redshift is still below our detection threshold.

Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

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